Do I Pay Tax on Forex Trading in the UK?

Spread Betting - Trading Without The Tax

Spread Betting is a form of trading stocks, or any other security by placing your trades on a brokers/bookmakers price rather than the actual market. Trading this way means (in the UK) you don't pay any stamp duty or become liable for capital gains tax on your profits (if there are any!).. But lets get down to the nitty gritty, stocks, indices, forex or commodities, ideas to trade or charts to watch... :) All welcome..
[link]

If I'm unemployed and I profit more than £12,500 a year (tax-free allowance) trading Forex, will I have to pay income tax on all profits above £12,500?

Also, when do I declare it as income? Does it count as income when my Forex account balance increases, or when I actually withdraw the funds into my bank account?
So lets say that I gain £20,000 this year trading Forex, but this stays in my Forex account (I don't withdraw any money into my bank account). Will I have to declare it as income and pay taxes on it? Or is that only if I withdraw the profits into my bank account?
(by the way, I am spread betting, therefore there is no stamp duty or capital gains tax).
submitted by RapidActionBattalion to UKPersonalFinance [link] [comments]

Bonds Trading! Predictable Source of Income…

You’re not sure what tomorrow holds. Crazy events are just too many. The pandemic has paralyzed so many things already. Besides that, you’ve seen protests, weird things that come with the elections…name it.
Right now, you know that to survive long-term, you need a predictable source of income fast. The great news is you can get started right away with bond trading, one of the safest ways to make money right now.
And no, you don’t have to wait forever. You can get into the day bond trading market and keep earning daily from this lucrative venture.
Why should you consider bonds as a predictable source of income for you?

Bonds are less risky

When you talk about markets, many people quickly think of the stock market. Others think of the forex markets. All these are huge markets but incredibly risky and volatile. In fact, there’s solid proof that most who get into the forex market fail. It mostly ends in premium tears.
Enters the bond market management. This is the backbone of the economy and one of the safest ways to trade out there.
Why?
Government entities rarely default. In the United States, government bonds are considered risk free. So, even though the pandemic has ruined most things, the bond market still stands. And you can still make a lot of money from it.

You can diversify

Okay, there’s no risk, great! But should you put all your eggs in one basket? No. You don’t have to. Bond investing can be diversified.
There are several types of bonds. These have different maturity terms. You can use this to minimize volatility and to ensure that your cash-flow is steady.
I recommend day bond trading if you want to have a consistent and dependable source of income. I can actually teach you how to do this on my Bond Market Mastery course.
On the other hand, you can also diversify and take up longer-term bonds for future ROI.

Low profile but extremely important

Do you love keeping a low profile? You’re tired of all the ads. You don’t want to keep promoting things on social media, blogs, calls, emails, or door to door to make a sale. In fact, you’re just looking for a way to quietly make money while you focus on other things that are important to you, like spending more time with your family.
If this describes you, then the bond market is an excellent and predictable income source for you. Once you learn how to do it well, it can give you that freedom that you’ve really been looking for.
A bond trading strategy is lower-profile but more important than even stock trading. You simply alter your portfolio considering the prevailing market conditions to maximize profit. Bonds are especially important since they affect the prevailing interest rates in an economy. In turn, this affects all sorts of lending and credit industries.

Better than savings accounts

Saving is crucial. Don’t spend all that you earn. However, pointless saving is useless. You’ll simply keep money in a bank waiting for a “rainy day”. And when that day comes, you use up all the money and remain broke.
The best thing to do is to grow your money. Consider doing this by putting money on the bond market instead. And to even start day bond trading to give you additional income. We’ve already figured out that it carries little to no risk.
What’s the best news about day bond trading?
You can make money from it daily. In fact, with the right strategy, you can be making considerable amounts of cash in minutes.

Bonds reduce your tax burden

You don’t want to lose most of your money to tax. Yes, pay your taxes. However, if you find a way to reduce the burden, take it. That’s what rich people do.
If you want to pay less in taxes, there are bonds that you can try out. As said, you should diversify your bond trading strategy. Day trading will pay your bills. Long-term trading will take care of your future. And tax-free bonds, such as municipal bonds at the federal or state level, will ease your tax burden.

Stop being uncertain about your financial future

Bond trading can change the game for you. It’s safe. It’s predictable. It’s lucrative. Ease the burden for yourself and your family by jumping into this profitable bandwagon.
submitted by seotrader0 to u/seotrader0 [link] [comments]

Bonds Trading! Predictable Source of Income…

You’re not sure what tomorrow holds. Crazy events are just too many. The pandemic has paralyzed so many things already. Besides that, you’ve seen protests, weird things that come with the elections…name it.
Right now, you know that to survive long-term, you need a predictable source of income fast. The great news is you can get started right away with bond trading, one of the safest ways to make money right now.
And no, you don’t have to wait forever. You can get into the day bond trading market and keep earning daily from this lucrative venture.
Why should you consider bonds as a predictable source of income for you?

Bonds are less risky

When you talk about markets, many people quickly think of the stock market. Others think of the forex markets. All these are huge markets but incredibly risky and volatile. In fact, there’s solid proof that most who get into the forex market fail. It mostly ends in premium tears.
Enters the bond market management. This is the backbone of the economy and one of the safest ways to trade out there.
Why?
Government entities rarely default. In the United States, government bonds are considered risk free. So, even though the pandemic has ruined most things, the bond market still stands. And you can still make a lot of money from it.

You can diversify

Okay, there’s no risk, great! But should you put all your eggs in one basket? No. You don’t have to. Bond investing can be diversified.
There are several types of bonds. These have different maturity terms. You can use this to minimize volatility and to ensure that your cash-flow is steady.
I recommend day bond trading if you want to have a consistent and dependable source of income. I can actually teach you how to do this on my Bond Market Mastery course.
On the other hand, you can also diversify and take up longer-term bonds for future ROI.

Low profile but extremely important

Do you love keeping a low profile? You’re tired of all the ads. You don’t want to keep promoting things on social media, blogs, calls, emails, or door to door to make a sale. In fact, you’re just looking for a way to quietly make money while you focus on other things that are important to you, like spending more time with your family.
If this describes you, then the bond market is an excellent and predictable income source for you. Once you learn how to do it well, it can give you that freedom that you’ve really been looking for.
A bond trading strategy is lower-profile but more important than even stock trading. You simply alter your portfolio considering the prevailing market conditions to maximize profit. Bonds are especially important since they affect the prevailing interest rates in an economy. In turn, this affects all sorts of lending and credit industries.

Better than savings accounts

Saving is crucial. Don’t spend all that you earn. However, pointless saving is useless. You’ll simply keep money in a bank waiting for a “rainy day”. And when that day comes, you use up all the money and remain broke.
The best thing to do is to grow your money. Consider doing this by putting money on the bond market instead. And to even start day bond trading to give you additional income. We’ve already figured out that it carries little to no risk.
What’s the best news about day bond trading?
You can make money from it daily. In fact, with the right strategy, you can be making considerable amounts of cash in minutes.

Bonds reduce your tax burden

You don’t want to lose most of your money to tax. Yes, pay your taxes. However, if you find a way to reduce the burden, take it. That’s what rich people do.
If you want to pay less in taxes, there are bonds that you can try out. As said, you should diversify your bond trading strategy. Day trading will pay your bills. Long-term trading will take care of your future. And tax-free bonds, such as municipal bonds at the federal or state level, will ease your tax burden.

Stop being uncertain about your financial future

Bond trading can change the game for you. It’s safe. It’s predictable. It’s lucrative. Ease the burden for yourself and your family by jumping into this profitable bandwagon.
submitted by seotrader0 to u/seotrader0 [link] [comments]

Forex Trading in Kenya.

Someone posted on here a few days ago asking about forex and forex trading in Kenya, I have gone through the responses and clearly, most people don’t have an idea. It is 3am in the morning and am in a good mood so let me make this post. This will be a comprehensive and lengthy post so grab a pen and paper and sit down. We’ll be here a while.
FIRST OF ALL, who am I..?
I am a forex trader, in Nairobi, Kenya..i have been actively involved in forex since I found out about it in Feb 2016 when I somehow ended up in a wealth creation seminar (lol) in pride inn Westlands, the one close to Mpaka Rd. Luckily for me, it was not one of those AIM global meetings or I’d be on Facebook selling God knows what those guys sell. I did not take it seriously till August of the same year and I have been active ever since.
I don’t teach, mentor or sell a course or signals, I trade my own money. I am also posting from a throwaway account because I don’t want KRA on my ass.
What the fuck is forex and forex trading.
In simple plain English, forex is like the stock market but for currencies. Stock Market = Shares, forex = currencies. If you want more in-depth explanation, google is your friend.
These currencies are pegged on specific countries, united states- dollar, UK- pound, euro zone- euro, Switzerland- Swiss franc, Kenya- Kenya shilling.. you get the point. Now, there are specific events and happenings between these economies that affect the movement and values of the currencies, driving their value (purchasing power up and down). Forex trading exploits these movements to make money. When the value is going up, we buy and vice versa (down –sell)
Is forex trading illegal in Kenya? Is it a scam?
Illegal, no. scam, no. All the banks in the world do it (KCB made about 4 billion from trading forex in 2019)
Have there been scams involving forex in Kenya?
Yes. Here is one that happened recently. This one is the most infamous one yet. Best believe that this is not the end of these type of scams because the stupidity, greed and gullibility of human beings is unfathomable.
However, by the end of this post, I hope you won’t fall for such silliness.
What next how do I make it work..?
Am glad you asked. Generally, there are two ways to go about it. One, you teach yourself. This is the equivalent of stealing our dad’s car and hoping that the pedal you hit is the brake and not the accelerator. It is the route I took, it is the most rewarding and a huge ego boost when you finally make it on your own. Typically, this involves scouring the internet for hours upon hours going down rabbit holes, thinking you have made it telling all your friends how you will be a millionaire then losing all your money. Some people do not have the stomach for that.
The second route is more practical, structured and smarter.
First Learn the basics. There is a free online forex course at www.babypips.com/learn/forex this is merely an introductory course. Basically it is learning the parts of a car before they let you inside the car.
Second, start building your strategy. By the time you are done with the babypips, you will have a feel of what the forex market is, what interests you, etc. Tip..Babypips has a lot of garbage. It is good for introductory purposes but not good for much else, pick whatever stick to you or jumps at you the first time. Nonsense like indicators should be ignored.
The next step is now the most important. Developing the skill and building your strategy. As a beginner, you want to exhaust your naivety before jumping into the more advanced stuff. Eg can you identify a trend, what is a pair, what is position sizing, what is metatrader 4 and how to operate it, what news is good for a currency, when can I trade, what are the different trading sessions, what is technical analysis, what is market sentiment, what are bullish conditions what is emotion management, how does my psychology affect my trading (more on this later) an I a swing, scalper or day trader etc
Mentors and forex courses.. you have probably seen people advertising how they can teach and mentor you on how to trade forex and charging so much money for it. Somehow it seems that these people are focused on the teaching than the trading. Weird, right..? Truth is trading is hard, teaching not quite. A common saying in the industry is “Those who can’t trade, teach” you want to avoid all these gurus on Facebook and Instagram, some are legit but most are not. Sifting the wheat from the chaff is hard but I did that for you. The info is available online on YouTube, telegram channels etc. am not saying not to spend money on a course, if you find a mentor whose style resonates with you and the course is reasonably priced, please, go ahead and buy..it will cut your learning curve in half. People are different. What worked for me might not work for you.
Here are some nice YouTube channels to watch. These guys are legit..
  1. Sam sieden
  2. Cuebanks
  3. TheCoinFx
  4. The trading channel
  5. Astro
  6. Forex family
  7. Wicksdontlie
Advanced stuff
  1. ICT
After a short period of time, you will be able to sniff out bs teachers with relative ease. You will also discover some of your own and expand the list. Two tips, start with the oldest videos first and whichever of these resonates with you, stick with till the wheels fall off.
How long will it take until things start making sense
Give yourself time to grow and learn. This is all new to you and you are allowed to make mistakes, to fail and discover yourself. Realistically, depending on the effort you put in, you will not start seeing results until after 6 months. Could take longeshorter so there is no guarantee.
Social media, Mentality, Psychology and Books
Online, forex trading might not have the best reputation online because it takes hard work and scammers and gurus give it a bad name. However, try to not get sucked into the Instagram trader lifestyle as it is nowhere close to what the reality is. You will not make millions tomorrow or the day after, you might never even make it in this market. But that is the reality of life. Nothing is promised, nothing is guaranteed.
Your mentality, beliefs and ego will be challenged in this market. You will learn things that will make you blood boil, you will ask yourself daily, how is this possible, why don’t they teach this in school..bla bla bla..it will be hard but growth is painful, if it wasn’t we’d all be billionaires. Take a break, take a walk, drink a glass of whatever you like or roll one..detox. Chill with your girl (or man) Gradually you will develop mental toughness that will set you up for life. Personally, I sorta ditched religion and picked up stoicism. Whatever works for you.
Psychology, this is unfortunately one of the most neglected aspects of your personal development in this journey. Do you believe in yourself? Can you stand by your convictions when everyone is against you? Can you get up every day uncertain of the future? There will be moments where you will question yourself, am I even doing the right thing? the right way? It is normal and essential for your growth. People who played competitive sports have a natural advantage here. Remember the game is first won in your head then on the pitch.
Books: ironically, books that helped me the most were the mindset books, Think and grow rich, trading for a living, 4 hour work week, the monk who sold his Ferrari..just google mindset and psychology books, most trading books are garbage. Watch and listen to people who have made it in the investing business. Ray Dalio, warren, Bill Ackman and Carl Icahn.
This is turning out to be lengthier than I anticipated so I’ll try to be brief for the remaining parts.
Brokers
You will need to open up an account with a broker. Get a broker who is regulated. Australian ones (IC Market and Pepperstone) are both legit, reliable and regulated. Do your research. I’d avoid local ones because I’ve heard stories of wide spreads and liquidity problems. International brokers have never failed me. There are plenty brokers, there is no one size fits all recommendation. If it ain’t broke..don’t fix it.
Money transfer.
All brokers accept wire transfers, you might need to call your bank to authorize that, avoid Equity bank. Stanchart and Stanbic are alright. Large withdrawals $10k+ you will have to call them prior. Get Skrill and Neteller if you don’t like banks like me, set up a Bitcoin wallet for faster withdrawals, (Payoneer and Paypal are accepted by some brokers, just check with them.)
How much money can I make..?
I hate this question because people have perceived ceilings of income in their minds, eg 1 million ksh is too much to make per month or 10,000ksh is too little. Instead, work backwards. What % return did I make this month/ on this trade. Safaricom made 19.5% last year, if you make 20% you have outperformed them. If you reach of consistency where you can make x% per month on whatever money you have, then there are no limits to how much you can make.
How much money do I need to start with..?
Zero. You have all the resources above, go forth. There are brokers who provide free bonuses and withdraw-able profits. However, to make a fulltime income you will need some serious cash. Generally, 50,000 kes. You can start lower or higher but if you need say 20k to live comfortably and that is a 10% return per month, then you can do the math on how big your account should be. Of course things like compound interest come into play but that is dependent on your skill level. I have seen people do spectacular things with very little funds.
Taxes..?
Talk to a lawyer or an accountant. I am neither.
Family? Friends?
Unfortunately, people will not understand why you spend hundreds of hours watching strangers on the internet so it is best to keep it from them. Eventually you will make it work and they will come to your corner talking about how they always knew you’d make it.
The journey will be lonely, make some trading buddies along the way. You’d be surprised at how easy it is when people are united by their circumstances (and stupidity) I have guys who are my bros from South Africa and Lebanon who I have never met but we came up together and are now homies. Join forums, ask questions and grow. That is the only way to learn. Ideally, a group of 5-10 friends committed to learning and growth is the best model. Pushing each other to grow and discovering together.
Forex is real and you can do amazing things with it. It is not a get rich quick scheme. If you want a quick guaranteed income, get a job.
And now it is 5am, fuck.
This is oversimplified and leaves out many many aspects.
Happy to answer any questions.
submitted by ChaliFlaniwaNairobi to Kenya [link] [comments]

Why Is Brexit Taking So Long Time?

Why Is Brexit Taking So Long Time?

Photo: Internet
What is the European Union?
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states located primarily in Europe.EU policies aim to ensure the free movement of people, goods, services, and capital within the internal market.
Due to EU countries having close economic and trade relations, the EU's establishment can effectively prevent wars. The EU has helped foster long periods of economic prosperity, and it's helped keep the region at peace.
In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
What is Brexit?
Brexit(a portmanteau of "British" and "exit") is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom (UK) from the European Union (EU). Following a UK-wide referendum in June 2016, in which 52% voted in favour of leaving the EU, and 48% voted to remain a member, the UK Government, which was then led by Theresa May, formally notified the EU of the country's intention to withdraw on 29 March 2017, beginning the Brexit process.
Why Britain left the EU?
The appealing part of the EU was that it made it easier for European countries to share in one another's prosperity. But, as with any union, cooperation means weathering downturns together — and that hasn't always been so easy.
For example, the 2008 financial crisis. Many economists agree that the European Central Bank failed to respond effectively, leading to a recession that was much more severe than it needed to be. Unemployment rose, and tax revenue fell. Banks needed bailouts, and debt in a number of EU countries soared.
According to data from the UK Ministry of Finance, the UK paid 18.8 billion pounds to the EU in 2014, equivalent to 361 million pounds a week.
After the financial crisis, worries about immigration, rising right-wing forces, split within the party, etc. Former Conservative Prime Minister Cameron finally promised that if he wins the 2015 election, he will hold a Brexit referendum.
David Cameron to quit after UK votes to leave the EU.
When might Britain actually leave the EU?
UK left the EU on 31 January 2020, but that is not the end of the Brexit story.
That's because the UK is in an 11-month period, known as the transition, that keeps the UK bound to the EU's rules. The transition (sometimes called the implementation period) will end on 31 December 2020.
Top of the to-do list will be a UK-EU free trade deal. This will be essential if the UK wants to be able to continue to trade with the EU with no tariffs, quotas or other barriers after the transition.
Both sides will also need to decide how far the UK is allowed to move away from existing EU regulations.
Aside from trade, many other aspects of the future UK-EU relationship will need to be decided. For example, Law enforcement, data sharing, and security; aviation standards and safety; access to fishing waters; supplies of electricity and gas; licensing and regulation of medicines.

Photo: BBC
What will happen to the UK after the Brexit?
In terms of economy, the UK, which has withdrawn from the European Union, saves 8 billion pounds (this amount of money is equivalent to 0.5% of the UK's GDP) every year it pays to the EU's finances. After Brexit, immigration policies can also be further tightened to free up more jobs and labor benefits. Finally, Brexit can get rid of the red tape of the EU (about 70% of the laws in the UK are governed by EU laws), for example, no longer implementing the EU's common agricultural policy.
However, after Brexit, tariffs will inevitably increase, and these tariffs will be transferred to commodities. To make better profits, many companies in the UK will rush to run away. For example, Dyson has moved its headquarters from the UK to Singapore. Many established British companies have left the UK because of Brexit. The news that Japanese car company Honda announced that it would close its British plant even shocked Britain.
Besides, the City of London carries 74% of EU foreign exchange transactions, 40% of global Euro transactions, 85% of EU hedge fund assets, and half of EU deposit insurance. After Brexit, London's dominance in the foreign exchange market, including euro transactions, will decline.
The current international order is the best since World War II, but Brexit shows how to make all countries truly unite and help each other, humankind still has a long way to go.
After the Brexit, there will be more influential in the financial market in the future. TOP 1 Markets will keep an eye on it with you.

https://preview.redd.it/ic5tdpzgh1n51.png?width=686&format=png&auto=webp&s=e4b46fa72fb484475b7743c2ced235f0d8a0493e

https://preview.redd.it/j5bm785jh1n51.png?width=686&format=png&auto=webp&s=1c15796b88ef4a93354587c545d4c3cd67891040
For more information please download “TOP 1 Markets” at APP store or google play.
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.top1.trading.forex.commodity.cryptocurrency.indices
top1markets:
https://itunes.apple.com/my/app/id1461741702
top one:
https://itunes.apple.com/tw/app/id1506200136
submitted by top1markets to u/top1markets [link] [comments]

With Bitcoin Suddenly Surging, Canaan Stock Is Also Going Up Today

With Bitcoin Suddenly Surging, Canaan Stock Is Also Going Up Today



By signing up, you may receive emails concerning CoinDesk products and you agree to our terms & conditions and privacy policSTER ON THE SITE
We need all users to enroll on our platform to access the Bitcoin Trader platform. The sign up method is easy and solely takes a couple of minutes. You'll be able to forever contact our customer service team if you wish helpour Bitcoin Trader account for our trading robot to position trades on your behalf. We tend to need all users to possess a minimum of $250 in their account before accessing our web trader platform. This quantity is enough to require positions price lots of thousands of dollars when using leverage.

https://preview.redd.it/e63kae9rz9j51.png?width=3116&format=png&auto=webp&s=eeb8869dbccb0fca7c64d3c91f83cebcdb446e84
You do not would like any expertise to trade with the Bitcoin Trader app. We tend to are ninety nine.99percent automatic, that means that live trading involves terribly little manual input. Moreover, we tend to offer comprehensive guides and tutorials to help users set up a live trading account.
ognized by the US Trading Association as the foremost profitable crypto robot in 20twenty. Whereas results rely on market conditions, a number of our traders have seen profits of more than four
What is the minimum deposit withBitcoin freedom
You'll be able to trade with us by depositing just $250. The additional you deposit, the more earning potential you have in a very single day. However, we have a tendency to encourage our users to begi
We have a tendency to are tested and verified by prime trading review sites. Our trading platform is cutting-edge. Moreover, we have a tendency to operate in collaboration with highly reputable brokers. We have a tendency to work absolutely transparently and publish all the data that users need to get started with our trading robot
The Bitcoin Trader trading platform is internet-based mostly and accessible through all major browsers on desktop and mobile. You can also install an HTML5 version of our net-trader on any mobile device. We tend to are coming up with to release native apps for Android and iOS by the top of the year.
Bitcoin Trader is a trading robot powered by cutting-edge AI technology. We have a tendency to have a possible daily return on investment of up to four hundredp.c. We have a tendency to have over five thousand reviews on TrustPilot, and at least 90percent of our reviewers are happy with our platformn
Are there hidden fees with Bitcoin Trader?
Our fees are fully transparent. You can download a listing of trading fees from the platform’s management dashboard. We have a tendency to only charge a little commission on profits earned through our trading robot
We have a tendency to settle for registrations from over a hundred thirty countries across the world. Most of our purchasers are from the UK, the US, some elements of Africa, and Asia. We have a tendency to are on the market in your country if you can access our Bitcoin Trader website while not employing a VPN.

We aim to assist normal people reap important returns from cryptocurrency trading. With us, you get exposure to over forty five Bitcoin contracts for variations (CFDs). Common crypto pairs you'll trade with us embrace BTC/USD, BTC/GBP, BTC/EUR, and BTC/XRP.

1) Register: Registering with the Bitcoin Trader app is straightforward. Scroll to the high of this page and submit the specified details through the registration kind.

We require users to verify your phone range and email, since this is often what you'll use for multi-factor authentication. Yet, our partner brokers verify the identity of all users per regulators’ understand your customer (KYC) requirements.

a pair of) eposit: You wish to deposit a minimum of $250 US to trade with the Bitcoin Trader software. We tend to depend on our partner brokers to facilitate transactions, and all of our partners are absolutely regulated by government authorities. With regulated brokers, you'll rest simple knowing that your funds are safe.
You'll fund your account through wire transfer, MoneyGram, Western Union, FasaPay, Visa, MasterCard, Neteller, WebMoney, and Skrill.


three) Trading Education and Demo: We have a tendency to are an auto-trading robot, however we have a tendency to do enable our users some level of management, especially when it comes to risk management. Consequently, our Bitcoin Trader official website encourages you to travel through our trading education section to familiarize yourself with the chance management process.
Our highly intuitive demo platform ought to additionally facilitate your observe trading with the robot before you begin trading during a live account Bitcoin Freedom

The platform needs that you just define the trading conditions for the robot and activate the live trading session button. We have a tendency to encourage you to depart the robot running throughout the day within the background. You'll be able to let it run unmonitored for up to eight hour
We tend to have recently been nominated as the most profitable robot for BTC trading in 20twenty. Moreover, we are one of the trading robots that has been extensively covered by mainstream media. Bitcoin Trader has thousands of reviews on client feedback platforms
Bitcoin Trader was one amongst the primary robots to use high-frequency trading techniques to BTC trading. The robot was founded in 2015, nearly two years before the crypto boom in 2017.
Bitcoin Trader uses AI and ML to create sense of big knowledge, which allows it to trade with high accuracy.
Our trading platform became an on-line sensation in mid-2017, and it has maintained its popularity since then. Bitcoin Trader is the simplest possibility for many beginner and experienced traders.
Bitcoin Trader allows you to earn a daily profit of up to $1,00zero by investing simply $250. That’s a potential return on investment of up to four hundredpercent.
Do celebrities recommend the Bitcoin trader software?

https://preview.redd.it/6i2yjm7sz9j51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=b94d3dd01aaff2d7d4230f81176913586c729aef
We tend to are highly widespread and hence a prime target for celebrity gossip. There are viral rumours that we have a tendency to have been endorsed by Elon Musk, Richard Branson, and Jeff Bezos.

Elon Musk – The founder of SpaceX has invested in Bitcoin and expressed interest in artificial intelligence, however he has not invested employing a trading robot.
Richard Brandson – Branson is another celebrity alleged to own invested using Bitcoin Trader. While it's true that he loves Bitcoin and blockchain technology, he hasn’t endorsed any trading robot.
Jezz Bezos – Bezos is also a big fan of emerging technologies, however he hasn’t shown any interest in BTC trading through revolutionary robots like Bitcoin Trader.

You ought to never build an investment decision based mostly on whether or not a star has endorsed or invested in it. Bitcoin Trader has been tested and licensed by specialists.

The verdict about Bitcoin Trader
We tend to are a prime-rated crypto trading robot with nice reviews on sites like TrustPilot and ForexPeaceArmy. Moreover, we have been recognized as legit and profitable by authoritative bodies like the US Trading Association.

We have a tendency to are always striving to offer the most effective to our users by regularly improving our trading platform. Our team of experts analyzes feedback from users to work out what features will create a a lot of seamless trading experience. We tend to operate in complete transparency, having partnered with some of the world’s most reputable brokers.

Our platforms are encrypted to shield you from hackers. Furthermore, we tend to also adhere to information privacy measures, like the General Information Protection Regulation (GDPR). Try out Bitcoin Trader currently through the link at the high right corner of this page.
perior over different cryptocurrencies?
LATESTBITCOINETHEREUMALTCOINSTECHNOLOGYADOPTIONBLOCKCHAINEVENTSCONTACT
PRESS RELEASEWhy is Bitcoin superior over different cryptocurrencies?Akshay KSPublished a pair of weeks agoon August 12, 2020By Akshay KS
Source: Pixabay
During this technical world, bitcoin is the foremost used digital currency all over the world. However the main question then arises within the minds of the many folks is why bitcoin is considered the foremost superior over other cryptocurrenc Bitcoin Freedom
Bitcoin is that the one method of creating transactions daily as alternative currencies. But it's its options and uniqueness that make it superior. Bitcoin and different currencies are based mostly on the cryptographic algorithms or mathematics that are encrypted, with that the user becomes the owner of the currency. Bitcoin currencies are easily accessible at Bitcoin ATM and online exchange
The main feature of the bitcoin, which makes it superior is that it is the safest option for digital transactions. These will be used for on-line searching and transfer of money too.
There are many alternative blessings to using bitcoin. A number of them are mentioned below
Decentralized and digital
Bitcoin offers the freedom of exchanging the price without representatives that proves helpful in controlling the lower fees and high funds. Bitcoin is that the faster method of transaction than others. It is secure as it is free from theft and frauds and is constant. The main advantage is that bitcoin has its homeowners whereas the bank controls the money.
Makes online looking
Normally, bitcoin will be used for on-line shopping too. Bitcoin is the opposite face of e-wallet, that is created by blockchain technology that is used to store money and will easily pay everywhere digitally. For this reason, it also makes your searching easy by which you'll be able to look from your home solely

Bitcoin is accepted globally at each corner of the planet, which makes it less volatile than local currencies or cash. This feature makes it superior because it enables us to form transactions on-line and across the boundaries
Bitcoin unable the means of tracking cash

https://preview.redd.it/4vpws3gtz9j51.jpg?width=1280&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=179af0fcc33f85322d48b6be65fce2e4442c6cd6
Bitcoin is created by blockchain technology. Blockchain is the sole technology which will either make it or break it. There are many computers which are used to keep up a permanent record of each bitcoin transactions with the help of cryptographic technique. In this approach, it becomes a lot of valuable together with the tracking of the payment. At the same time, there's no method of tracking the cash

While not any transformation method, it will be used over the entire world. It provides the simplest platform for the investment as it is free from the restrictions of governments or banks. It provides an open market and combines the simplest of gold and money.

Bitcoin provides the power to access the balance of the users with a password which is named a personal key. It additionally permits the exchange of values through the web without any middle person. Thus, bitcoin becomes safer, stuffed with privacy, and open to everyone
Unlike cash, it is not possible to form the duplicate quite bitcoin that makes it more efficient. It's protected with the technology of blockchain. Even if anyone tries to form a replica of bitcoin to use it, then the system will automatically reject it as the system recognize it as unknown

Bitcoin Freedom failed to allow two persons to transact on the one price. Once the bitcoin is transferred, its possession is also transferred. So this is the simple approach of maintaining records for any tax functions. It conjointly makes it a easy and healthier metho

Bitcoin is the foremost reliable manner of online transactions. Many questions arise in folks’s minds that are solved on websites like bitcoin revolution. One in all them was the above-mentioned question. Bitcoin provides many facilities, and it comes with more and a lot of blessings which makes it distinctive and special over different cryptocurrencies. It can be preferred as the simplest digital platform for transac


BITCOINADOPTIONABOUT USMEET THE TEAMCAREERADVERTISE WITH USCONTACT USTERMS AND CONDITIONSPRIVACY POLICYPARTNERS
Disclaimer: AMBCrypto US and UK Market's content is informational in nature and is not meant to be investment advice. Buying, trading or selling crypto-currencies ought to be considered a high-risk investment and every reader is advised to do their due diligence before making any decisions.
People, businesses, and developers: get the support you would like with our straightforward

Browse the FAQ'sn news, CoinDesk is a media outlet that strives for the very best journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. CoinDesk is an independent operating subsidiary of Digital Currency Group, which invests in cryptocurrencies and blockchain startups.

Sign up with Bitcoin Trader nowadays to start out earning potentially thousands of greenbacks in profits daily from an initial investment of just $250. We tend to are a high-rated automated trading robot that's accessible and easy for all to use. By trading with Bitcoin Trader, you'll start generating a lot of investment income than ever beforeBitcoin Freedom

“After simply some months trading with Bitcoin Trader, I’ve made a lot of than $ten,00zero and finally understand what it’s like to measure the dream. I’m saving up my profits to quit my job and spend a year traveling.”

“I’ve been a member of Bitcoin Trader for only 47 days. But my life has already modified! Not solely have I created my 1st $1,000, however I’ve also met a number of the most incredible folks in the process. Thanks, Bitcoin Trader!”

“I used to speculate on my own, but now that I’ve used Bitcoin Trader I would never return to my recent broker. Bitcoin Trader takes manner less work and that i’ve already created thousands of greenbacks in profits in simply a few months.
“Two weeks ago, I got laid off. With no choices left, I thought my life was over. Now I’m making a lot of cash than I made at my job every and each day. Thanks, Bitcoin Trader!”

With the Bitcoin Trader software, you can probably build up to $one,500 daily from a deposit of $250. We tend to are powered by artificial intelligence technology to confirm that you just get a win rate of more than 98p.c under the right market conditions. The US Trading Association has nominated our Bitcoin Trader as the most profitable crypto trading robot on the market.
We have invested in the globe’s best trading technologies. These include the factitious intelligence subsets of natural language processing, deep learning, and machine learning. Bitcin Trader depends on these technologies to derive insights from huge data and market news.
The Bitcoin Trader app has won nearly fifteen coveted awards since launching in 2016. These include the most Profitable Robot 2020 award by the American Trading Association, the simplest Robot in Trading Technologies 2019 award, and the most Profitable Crypto Robot in 2018 Award. We have a tendency to price our customers and are contin
https://www.cryptoerapro.com/bitcoin-freedom/
submitted by cryptoerapro to u/cryptoerapro [link] [comments]

No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
submitted by GaslightEveryone to u/GaslightEveryone [link] [comments]

Need Help - Do Businesses who generate Forex income have to pay GST/HST to the CRA (Canada)

Hey guys, I'm a total noobie here and can't seem to find the answer to this question anywhere.

In Canada, if you incorporate yourself and run your trades through your business and earn business income, do you also have to pay GST/HST to the CRA as another business would?

I am asking this question because for my current job, I am incorporated (different field) and charge GST/HST, which then goes to the CRA. However, seeing as this is Forex, would it be the same? It's not like you can collect GST/HST from the market....lol

Essentially I'm trying to see what is the best option to save my profits going forward. This scenario is based on generating 500K/year in profit via trading:

  1. Claim Capital Gains - 50% of the profit will be taxed at your marginal rate (Until how long though? At what point will the CRA consider it business income instead?)
  2. Sole Proprietor - Income is taxed at the personal income tax rate and you can also claim expenses, in addition you do not pay GST/HST
  3. Incorporated Business - Income is taxed at the corporate tax rate, you can claim expenses and pay yourself dividends (even lower tax rate), BUT - Do you have to pay GST/HST as well?

Sorry for the stupid question, the answer is probably no, but I want to be sure.

If I don't have to pay GST/HST then I think registering as a business is a no-brainer. In fact, you can save more money than purely capital gains up to a certain point. Not to mention all the tax-hacks you can have like using the business' money to buy yourself a home completely tax-free in Canada, if you know how to do it. Essentially I'm seeing the best way to pay myself 100K/year while saving the other 400K, to then take it out tax-free on a future home. But yeah, do businesses have to pay GST/HST?

Thanks everyone.
submitted by TresslessFin to Forex [link] [comments]

60+ Free Courses, 6 Best Seller Discounted Courses

  1. 2h 45m The Bargue Drawing Course https://www.udemy.com/course/the-bargue-drawing-course/?couponCode=A2564D623D4BB342BAF0 1 Day left at this price!
  2. 1h 10m Cisco CCNP ENCOR (350-401) - Architecture, Virtualization https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-ccna-cisco/?couponCode=9A9E47000D541BA2BD99 2 Days left at this price!
  3. 2h 8m How To Boost Your Immune System To Help Resist COVID-19 https://www.udemy.com/course/how_to_boost_your_immune_system_to_help_resist_covid-19/?couponCode=HELP_DEFEAT_COVID-19 2 Days left at this price!
  4. 11h 40m Curso Excel y Power BI – Análisis y Visualización de Datos https://www.udemy.com/course/curso-tutorial-aprender-como-usar-power-bi-excel-ejercicios-practicos/?couponCode=AGO20-2 1 Day left at this price!
  5. 29h 14m Listening Skills - The Ultimate Workplace Soft Skills https://www.udemy.com/course/listening-skills-the-ultimate-workplace-soft-skills/?couponCode=8978566EB43221AA7FDD 1 Day left at this price!
  6. 3h 55m Internet and Web Development Fundamentals https://youaccel.com/admin/cdisplay.php?tsrc=225691&cid=30&promocode=FREEBIESGLOBAL&promocc=yes 2 Days left at this price!
  7. 0h 56m Designing Landing Pages in Figma: Techniques and Processes https://www.udemy.com/course/designing-landing-pages-in-figma-techniques-and-processes/?couponCode=65741F0741DCFC77A28C 2 Days left at this price!
  8. 0h 30m Windows Deployment Services (WDS) on Windows Server 2019 https://www.udemy.com/course/windows-deployment-services-wds-windows-server-2019/?couponCode=AUGUST2020 2 Days left at this price!
  9. 100 questions Cyber Security Skills Test With Explanation https://www.udemy.com/course/cyber-security-skills-test-with-explanation/?couponCode=TESTNOW 1 Day left at this price!
  10. 2h 32m The Complete Practical Touch Typing Course https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-type-like-a-pro/?couponCode=488B681D9D6321D01108 2 Days left at this price!
  11. 4h 32m Complete Guide to Pinterest & Pinterest Growth 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/pinheroes/?couponCode=9E0DA49CED3694DF691D 2 Days left at this price!
  12. 2h 24m Fresher Hiring the Complete guide : Best Hiring Practices https://www.udemy.com/course/campus-hiring-the-complete-end-to-end-guide/?couponCode=CC07D99EE8B2C7104D30 2 Days left at this price!
  13. 1h 55m x64dbg Debugger for Reverse Engineering Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/x64dbg-debugge?couponCode=XDBG_AUG21
  14. 0h 55m Remote Desktop Services For Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/remote-desktop-services-windows-server-for-beginners/
  15. 9h 58m Java Programming for Complete Stranger in Tamil https://www.udemy.com/course/java-programming-for-complete-stranger-in-tamil/?couponCode=EB5DB553994FDB56157B 2 Days left at this price!
  16. 4h 48m Microsoft Excel - Learn MS EXCEL For DATA Analysis https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-excel-learn-ms-excel-for-data-analysis/?couponCode=A65463AFE287D36FA249 2 Days left at this price!
  17. 2h 59m Complete SQL Bootcamp with MySQL, PHP & Python https://www.udemy.com/course/complete-sql-bootcamp-with-mysql-php-python/?couponCode=SQLBOOTCAMPAUG2020 2 Days left at this price!
  18. 1h 13m eCommerce Marketing Certification https://www.udemy.com/course/ecommerce-marketing-certification/?couponCode=TIMEFORCHANGE 2 Days left at this price!
  19. 8h 24m Business Intelligence: Python and Programming Essentials. https://www.udemy.com/course/python-banking-oriented/?couponCode=9B7E6EE36C2057A39C38 2 Days left at this price!
  20. 1h 14m Public Speaking: Be a Professional Speaker https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-be-a-professional-speake?couponCode=BAF587315DB625ED174C 2 Days left at this price!
  21. 4h 7m The Complete Law Of Attraction Course Updated for the 2020s https://www.udemy.com/course/the-complete-law-of-attraction-course-updated-for-the-2020s/?couponCode=312A7646ACF38E7469A5 2 Days left at this price!
  22. 6h 16m The Complete Resilience Course - Master Emotional Resiliency https://www.udemy.com/course/the-complete-resilience-course-master-emotional-resiliency/?couponCode=0F96982CB58EF4F40A16 2 Days left at this price!
  23. 1h 12m COVID19 Begin Budget Bread Baking Sustainability Activities https://www.udemy.com/course/bake-a-fuss-free-bread/
  24. 0h 56m Learning Yoga made Easy https://www.udemy.com/course/learning-yoga-made-easy/
  25. 53h 42m Managerial Accounting / Cost Accounting https://www.udemy.com/course/managerial-accounting-cost-accounting/?couponCode=D0401E00E270B8BEC6F5 1 Day left at this price!
  26. 5h 5m Build an Amazon Affiliate E-Commerce Store from Scratch https://youaccel.com/admin/cdisplay.php?cid=889085&tsrc=225691&promocc=yes&promocode=FREEBIESGLOBAL
  27. 7h 59m Process Costing System-Cost Accounting-Managerial Accounting https://www.udemy.com/course/process-costing-system-cost-accounting-managerial-accounting/?couponCode=08EE37E4BDF3C9307BE5 1 Day left at this price!
  28. 8h 40m Master Budgets – Managerial Accounting/Cost Accounting https://www.udemy.com/course/master-budgets-managerial-accountingcost-accounting/?couponCode=953488B11FC50E4DAFBC 1 Day left at this price!
  29. 17h 0m QuickBooks Online Vs Xero Not for Profit Organization https://www.udemy.com/course/quickbooks-online-vs-xero-not-for-profit-organization/?couponCode=BD3204114EECA09169FE 1 Day left at this price!
  30. 9h 16m Start Making Passive Income Online: The Complete Bundle https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-make-money-passive-income-online-bundle-find-job-money/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW822020 1 Day left at this price!
  31. 1h 0m Best Techniques to Drive Traffic to Your Website https://www.udemy.com/course/traffic-website-best-techniques-to-drive-traffic-to-your-website/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW822020 1 Day left at this price!
  32. 0h 39m The FREE Photoshop: Turn GIMP Into Photoshop in No Time https://www.udemy.com/course/get-free-photoshop-master-photo-editing-with-gimp/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW822020 1 Day left at this price!
  33. 0h 41m How to Make Passive Income without experience or a Website https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-make-passive-income-without-experience-or-a-website/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW822020 1 Day left at this price!
  34. 0h 43m How To Start A T-Shirt Business Online https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-start-a-t-shirt-business-online/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW822020 1 Day left at this price!
  35. 0h 39m How to Make Passive Income with Facebook Videos https://www.udemy.com/course/facebook-video-ad-break-how-to-make-passive-income-with-facebookvideo/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW822020 1 Day left at this price!
  36. 2h 11m Affiliate Marketing A Set and Forget Passive Income Method https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-make-money-using-flight-booking-and-hotel-affiliation/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW822020 1 Day left at this price!
  37. 0h 38m Yoast SEO: Write a SEO Optimized Articles in 10 Minutes https://www.udemy.com/course/write-seo-optimized-articles-that-rank1st-in-search-engine/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW822020 1 Day left at this price!
  38. 1h 4m WordPress: Make A Professional Website With No Coding https://www.udemy.com/course/wordpress-make-a-professional-website-with-no-coding/?couponCode=STAYHOMENEW822020 1 Day left at this price!
  39. 1h 10m Fire, Water, Wind, Earth and Spirit in Yoga https://www.udemy.com/course/yoga-character-growth/?couponCode=EXP0823 2 Days left at this price!
  40. 5h 24m Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2020: Video Editing for Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/premiere-pro-with-brad-newton/?couponCode=AUGUST_LEARN_EDITING 2 Days left at this price!
  41. 10h 15m Cost Volume Profit Analysis (CVP) – Managerial Accounting https://www.udemy.com/course/cost-volume-profit-analysis-cvp-managerial-accounting/?couponCode=A8CB00370E85F360CBEA 1 Day left at this price!
  42. 2h 57m English Writing Basics: Learn to Write Sentences in English https://www.udemy.com/course/english-writing-basics-learn-to-write-sentences-in-english-j/?couponCode=3DAYDIC-DUETO1DAY 2 Days left at this price!
  43. 3h 9m Effektive Geschäftsführung und Unternehmer Mindset lernen https://www.udemy.com/course/unternehmer-mindest/?couponCode=5F1E6CCA0AB10C5986BD 2 Days left at this price!
  44. 55 questions Certified CIW JavaScript Developer Specialist For 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/certified-ciw-javascript-developer-specialist-for-2018/?couponCode=8F0336355659214F499A 2 Days left at this price!
  45. 120 questions Certified CIW Web Developer Specialist Practice Tests 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/certified-ciw-web-developer-specialist-practice-tests-2018/?couponCode=F15D80E71CB984659052 2 Days left at this price!
  46. 0h 45m Learn Cinema 4D: Low Poly Tree https://www.udemy.com/course/low-poly-art-create-an-abstract-tree/?couponCode=632AA867C95BC52C77D4 2 Days left at this price!
  47. 1h 25m Learn Deferred Taxes through Case Studies https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-deferred-taxes-through-case-studies/?couponCode=AUGFRC 1 Day left at this price!
  48. 0h 59m Let's Break Stuff: Coding for Beginners with HTML5 and CSS3 https://www.udemy.com/course/lets-break-stuff-coding-for-beginners-with-html5-and-css3/
  49. 2h 24m Adobe After Effects CC 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/adobe-after-effects-cc-2020/?couponCode=TRY10FREE94 1 Day left at this price!
  50. 0h 34m How to build a multi-vendor eCommerce website https://www.udemy.com/course/build-multivendor-ecommerce-website/
  51. 2h 7m Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/adobe-premiere-pro-cc-2020/?couponCode=TRY10FREE94 1 Day left at this price!
  52. 0h 41m Essential Fire Safety Training https://www.udemy.com/course/basic-fire-safety-at-home-work/
  53. 3h 24m Learn Visual Studio Code https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-visual-studio-code-v/?couponCode=TRY10FREE94 1 Day left at this price!
  54. 1h 54m Sales Funnel Masterclass : Increase Sales with Sales Funnel https://www.udemy.com/course/sales-funnel-masterclass-increase-sales-with-sales-funnel/
  55. 1h 18m Adobe Creative Cloud 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/adobe-creative-cloud-master-course/?couponCode=TRY10FREE94 1 Day left at this price!
  56. 1h 57m Kajabi™ Crash Course | How To Sell Online Courses https://www.udemy.com/course/kajabi-crash-course-how-to-sell-online-courses/
  57. 0h 35m RoboAuthor: Content Writing Automation 2020 - Part 1 https://www.udemy.com/course/roboauthor-content-writing-automation-2019-part-1/?couponCode=FIRSTTRY 1 Day left at this price!
  58. 1h 16m Microsoft OneDrive 2020 - For Beginners https://www.udemy.com/course/learn-microsoft-onedrive/?couponCode=0F44F1576070F8C0EBA9 2 Days left at this price!
  59. 5h 31m The Complete Bootstrap 5 Course for Beginners (Step by Step) https://www.udemy.com/course/the-complete-bootstrap-5-course-for-beginners-step-by-step/?couponCode=BC53DOFF 1 Day left at this price!
  60. 15h 14m Ultimate Excel Training Course - Intro to Advanced Pro https://www.udemy.com/course/ultimate-excel-training-course-intro-to-advanced-pro/?couponCode=CRUSHEXCEL 1 Day left at this price!
  61. 10h 33m Stock Trading Momentum Based Strategies - Technical Analysis https://www.udemy.com/course/momentum-indicators-rsi-stoch-williamr-tsi-mfi/?couponCode=2AUG20 1 Day left at this price!
  62. 1h 9m Ultimate Microsoft Word (بالعربية Word كورس) https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-word-2019-in-arabic/?couponCode=MOOCY.ME 1 Day left at this price!
  63. 1h 11m Ultimate Microsoft Excel 2019 (بالعربية Excel كورس) https://www.udemy.com/course/microsoft-excel-2019-in-arabic/?couponCode=MOOCY.ME 1 Day left at this price!
  64. 0h 34m How to Build Pro LinkedIn Profile- بناء حساب إحترافي لينكدين https://www.udemy.com/course/how-to-build-pro-linkedin-profile/?couponCode=MOOCY.ME 1 Day left at this price!
  65. 2h 44m The complete forex course from scratch to professional https://www.udemy.com/course/the-complete-forex-course-from-scratch-to-professional/?couponCode=54B05F9163BF9BB80222 1 Day left at this price!
  66. 3h 59m LumaFusion Guide - LumaFusion 2.2+ for Complete Beginners V2 https://www.udemy.com/course/ultimate-guide-to-lumafusion-2-for-complete-beginners/?couponCode=96000912A312AA7A3D0A 1 Day left at this price!
  67. 11h 17m Practical Web Development: 22 Courses in 1 https://www.udemy.com/course/the-complete-web-development-course/?couponCode=PRACTICALWEBAUG2020 1 Day left at this price!
  68. 10h 53m AWS Services for Solutions Architect Associates https://www.udemy.com/course/aws-services-for-solutions-architect-associates-course/?couponCode=AUG2020FREE 2 Day left at this price!
  69. 7h 57m Python for Beginners – Basics to Advanced https://www.udemy.com/course/python-programming-beginner-to-advanced/?couponCode=AUG2020FREE 2 Day left at this price!
  70. 1h 49m DevOps Fundamentals https://www.udemy.com/course/devops-fundamentals-for-beginners/?couponCode=AUG2020FREE 2 Day left at this price!
  71. 9h 59m Step by Step Guide for Javascript - Basics to Advanced https://www.udemy.com/course/javascript-basics-to-advanced/?couponCode=AUG2020FREE 2 Day left at this price!
Best Seller Discounted Courses
  1. 23h 44m $9.99 AWS Certified DevOps Engineer: Get 3 Certifications 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/aws-certified-devops-engineer-get-3-certifications/?couponCode=SEEKAWSCERT
  2. 41h 29m $9.99 SUPERCHARGE your Facebook Marketing & Facebook Ads in 2020 https://www.udemy.com/course/facebook-marketing-strategy-facebook-training/?couponCode=AUG999
  3. 29h 15m $10.99 Complete Presentation Skills Masterclass for Every Occasion https://www.udemy.com/course/complete-presentation-skills-masterclass-for-every-occasion/?couponCode=THANKS
  4. 31h 15m $10.99 Soft Skills: The 11 Essential Career Soft Skills $11.99 https://www.udemy.com/course/soft-skills-the-11-essential-career-soft-skills/?couponCode=D7E3D07A6C92ACEF1280
  5. 31 Hours The Agile Methodology for Project Risk Managers $9.99 https://www.udemy.com/course/the-agile-methodology-for-project-risk-managers/?couponCode=AGILE9
  6. 8 Hours Effective Problem-solving and Decision-making under Pressure $9.99 https://www.udemy.com/course/effective-problem-solving-and-decision-making-under-pressure/?couponCode=SOLVE9
Best Selling Eduonix 8 E-Degrees:
  1. $32.50 DevOps E-degree
  2. $32.50 Fullstack JavaScript Developer E-Degree
  3. $34 Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning E-Degree
  4. $34 MERN Stack Developer E-Degree Program
  5. $37.50 Advance Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning E-Degree
  6. $39 IoT E-degree – The Novice to Expert Program in IOT
  7. $42.50 Cybersecurity E-Degree
  8. $45 Cloud Computing E-Degree
submitted by ViralMedia007 to FREECoursesEveryday [link] [comments]

Hibiscus Petroleum Berhad (5199.KL)


https://preview.redd.it/gp18bjnlabr41.jpg?width=768&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=6054e7f52e8d52da403016139ae43e0e799abf15
Download PDF of this article here: https://docdro.id/6eLgUPo
In light of the recent fall in oil prices due to the Saudi-Russian dispute and dampening demand for oil due to the lockdowns implemented globally, O&G stocks have taken a severe beating, falling approximately 50% from their highs at the beginning of the year. Not spared from this onslaught is Hibiscus Petroleum Berhad (Hibiscus), a listed oil and gas (O&G) exploration and production (E&P) company.
Why invest in O&G stocks in this particularly uncertain period? For one, valuations of these stocks have fallen to multi-year lows, bringing the potential ROI on these stocks to attractive levels. Oil prices are cyclical, and are bound to return to the mean given a sufficiently long time horizon. The trick is to find those companies who can survive through this downturn and emerge into “normal” profitability once oil prices rebound.
In this article, I will explore the upsides and downsides of investing in Hibiscus. I will do my best to cater this report to newcomers to the O&G industry – rather than address exclusively experts and veterans of the O&G sector. As an equity analyst, I aim to provide a view on the company primarily, and will generally refrain from providing macro views on oil or opinions about secular trends of the sector. I hope you enjoy reading it!
Stock code: 5199.KL
Stock name: Hibiscus Petroleum Berhad
Financial information and financial reports: https://www.malaysiastock.biz/Corporate-Infomation.aspx?securityCode=5199
Company website: https://www.hibiscuspetroleum.com/

Company Snapshot

Hibiscus Petroleum Berhad (5199.KL) is an oil and gas (O&G) upstream exploration and production (E&P) company located in Malaysia. As an E&P company, their business can be basically described as:
· looking for oil,
· drawing it out of the ground, and
· selling it on global oil markets.
This means Hibiscus’s profits are particularly exposed to fluctuating oil prices. With oil prices falling to sub-$30 from about $60 at the beginning of the year, Hibiscus’s stock price has also fallen by about 50% YTD – from around RM 1.00 to RM 0.45 (as of 5 April 2020).
https://preview.redd.it/3dqc4jraabr41.png?width=641&format=png&auto=webp&s=7ba0e8614c4e9d781edfc670016a874b90560684
https://preview.redd.it/lvdkrf0cabr41.png?width=356&format=png&auto=webp&s=46f250a713887b06986932fa475dc59c7c28582e
While the company is domiciled in Malaysia, its two main oil producing fields are located in both Malaysia and the UK. The Malaysian oil field is commonly referred to as the North Sabah field, while the UK oil field is commonly referred to as the Anasuria oil field. Hibiscus has licenses to other oil fields in different parts of the world, notably the Marigold/Sunflower oil fields in the UK and the VIC cluster in Australia, but its revenues and profits mainly stem from the former two oil producing fields.
Given that it’s a small player and has only two primary producing oil fields, it’s not surprising that Hibiscus sells its oil to a concentrated pool of customers, with 2 of them representing 80% of its revenues (i.e. Petronas and BP). Fortunately, both these customers are oil supermajors, and are unlikely to default on their obligations despite low oil prices.
At RM 0.45 per share, the market capitalization is RM 714.7m and it has a trailing PE ratio of about 5x. It doesn’t carry any debt, and it hasn’t paid a dividend in its listing history. The MD, Mr. Kenneth Gerard Pereira, owns about 10% of the company’s outstanding shares.

Reserves (Total recoverable oil) & Production (bbl/day)

To begin analyzing the company, it’s necessary to understand a little of the industry jargon. We’ll start with Reserves and Production.
In general, there are three types of categories for a company’s recoverable oil volumes – Reserves, Contingent Resources and Prospective Resources. Reserves are those oil fields which are “commercial”, which is defined as below:
As defined by the SPE PRMS, Reserves are “… quantities of petroleum anticipated to be commercially recoverable by application of development projects to known accumulations from a given date forward under defined conditions.” Therefore, Reserves must be discovered (by drilling, recoverable (with current technology), remaining in the subsurface (at the effective date of the evaluation) and “commercial” based on the development project proposed.)
Note that Reserves are associated with development projects. To be considered as “commercial”, there must be a firm intention to proceed with the project in a reasonable time frame (typically 5 years, and such intention must be based upon all of the following criteria:)
- A reasonable assessment of the future economics of the development project meeting defined investment and operating criteria; - A reasonable expectation that there will be a market for all or at least the expected sales quantities of production required to justify development; - Evidence that the necessary production and transportation facilities are available or can be made available; and - Evidence that legal, contractual, environmental and other social and economic concerns will allow for the actual implementation of the recovery project being evaluated.
Contingent Resources and Prospective Resources are further defined as below:
- Contingent Resources: potentially recoverable volumes associated with a development plan that targets discovered volumes but is not (yet commercial (as defined above); and) - Prospective Resources: potentially recoverable volumes associated with a development plan that targets as yet undiscovered volumes.
In the industry lingo, we generally refer to Reserves as ‘P’ and Contingent Resources as ‘C’. These ‘P’ and ‘C’ resources can be further categorized into 1P/2P/3P resources and 1C/2C/3C resources, each referring to a low/medium/high estimate of the company’s potential recoverable oil volumes:
- Low/1C/1P estimate: there should be reasonable certainty that volumes actually recovered will equal or exceed the estimate; - Best/2C/2P estimate: there should be an equal likelihood of the actual volumes of petroleum being larger or smaller than the estimate; and - High/3C/3P estimate: there is a low probability that the estimate will be exceeded.
Hence in the E&P industry, it is easy to see why most investors and analysts refer to the 2P estimate as the best estimate for a company’s actual recoverable oil volumes. This is because 2P reserves (‘2P’ referring to ‘Proved and Probable’) are a middle estimate of the recoverable oil volumes legally recognized as “commercial”.
However, there’s nothing stopping you from including 2C resources (riskier) or utilizing 1P resources (conservative) as your estimate for total recoverable oil volumes, depending on your risk appetite. In this instance, the company has provided a snapshot of its 2P and 2C resources in its analyst presentation:
https://preview.redd.it/o8qejdyc8br41.png?width=710&format=png&auto=webp&s=b3ab9be8f83badf0206adc982feda3a558d43e78
Basically, what the company is saying here is that by 2021, it will have classified as 2P reserves at least 23.7 million bbl from its Anasuria field and 20.5 million bbl from its North Sabah field – for total 2P reserves of 44.2 million bbl (we are ignoring the Australian VIC cluster as it is only estimated to reach first oil by 2022).
Furthermore, the company is stating that they have discovered (but not yet legally classified as “commercial”) a further 71 million bbl of oil from both the Anasuria and North Sabah fields, as well as the Marigold/Sunflower fields. If we include these 2C resources, the total potential recoverable oil volumes could exceed 100 million bbl.
In this report, we shall explore all valuation scenarios giving consideration to both 2P and 2C resources.
https://preview.redd.it/gk54qplf8br41.png?width=489&format=png&auto=webp&s=c905b7a6328432218b5b9dfd53cc9ef1390bd604
The company further targets a 2021 production rate of 20,000 bbl (LTM: 8,000 bbl), which includes 5,000 bbl from its Anasuria field (LTM: 2,500 bbl) and 7,000 bbl from its North Sabah field (LTM: 5,300 bbl).
This is a substantial increase in forecasted production from both existing and prospective oil fields. If it materializes, annual production rate could be as high as 7,300 mmbbl, and 2021 revenues (given FY20 USD/bbl of $60) could exceed RM 1.5 billion (FY20: RM 988 million).
However, this targeted forecast is quite a stretch from current production levels. Nevertheless, we shall consider all provided information in estimating a valuation for Hibiscus.
To understand Hibiscus’s oil production capacity and forecast its revenues and profits, we need to have a better appreciation of the performance of its two main cash-generating assets – the North Sabah field and the Anasuria field.

North Sabah oil field
https://preview.redd.it/62nssexj8br41.png?width=1003&format=png&auto=webp&s=cd78f86d51165fb9a93015e49496f7f98dad64dd
Hibiscus owns a 50% interest in the North Sabah field together with its partner Petronas, and has production rights over the field up to year 2040. The asset contains 4 oil fields, namely the St Joseph field, South Furious field, SF 30 field and Barton field.
For the sake of brevity, we shall not delve deep into the operational aspects of the fields or the contractual nature of its production sharing contract (PSC). We’ll just focus on the factors which relate to its financial performance. These are:
· Average uptime
· Total oil sold
· Average realized oil price
· Average OPEX per bbl
With regards to average uptime, we can see that the company maintains relative high facility availability, exceeding 90% uptime in all quarters of the LTM with exception of Jul-Sep 2019. The dip in average uptime was due to production enhancement projects and maintenance activities undertaken to improve the production capacity of the St Joseph and SF30 oil fields.
Hence, we can conclude that management has a good handle on operational performance. It also implies that there is little room for further improvement in production resulting from increased uptime.
As North Sabah is under a production sharing contract (PSC), there is a distinction between gross oil production and net oil production. The former relates to total oil drawn out of the ground, whereas the latter refers to Hibiscus’s share of oil production after taxes, royalties and expenses are accounted for. In this case, we want to pay attention to net oil production, not gross.
We can arrive at Hibiscus’s total oil sold for the last twelve months (LTM) by adding up the total oil sold for each of the last 4 quarters. Summing up the figures yields total oil sold for the LTM of approximately 2,075,305 bbl.
Then, we can arrive at an average realized oil price over the LTM by averaging the average realized oil price for the last 4 quarters, giving us an average realized oil price over the LTM of USD 68.57/bbl. We can do the same for average OPEX per bbl, giving us an average OPEX per bbl over the LTM of USD 13.23/bbl.
Thus, we can sum up the above financial performance of the North Sabah field with the following figures:
· Total oil sold: 2,075,305 bbl
· Average realized oil price: USD 68.57/bbl
· Average OPEX per bbl: USD 13.23/bbl

Anasuria oil field
https://preview.redd.it/586u4kfo8br41.png?width=1038&format=png&auto=webp&s=7580fc7f7df7e948754d025745a5cf47d4393c0f
Doing the same exercise as above for the Anasuria field, we arrive at the following financial performance for the Anasuria field:
· Total oil sold: 1,073,304 bbl
· Average realized oil price: USD 63.57/bbl
· Average OPEX per bbl: USD 23.22/bbl
As gas production is relatively immaterial, and to be conservative, we shall only consider the crude oil production from the Anasuria field in forecasting revenues.

Valuation (Method 1)

Putting the figures from both oil fields together, we get the following data:
https://preview.redd.it/7y6064dq8br41.png?width=700&format=png&auto=webp&s=2a4120563a011cf61fc6090e1cd5932602599dc2
Given that we have determined LTM EBITDA of RM 632m, the next step would be to subtract ITDA (interest, tax, depreciation & amortization) from it to obtain estimated LTM Net Profit. Using FY2020’s ITDA of approximately RM 318m as a guideline, we arrive at an estimated LTM Net Profit of RM 314m (FY20: 230m). Given the current market capitalization of RM 714.7m, this implies a trailing LTM PE of 2.3x.
Performing a sensitivity analysis given different oil prices, we arrive at the following net profit table for the company under different oil price scenarios, assuming oil production rate and ITDA remain constant:
https://preview.redd.it/xixge5sr8br41.png?width=433&format=png&auto=webp&s=288a00f6e5088d01936f0217ae7798d2cfcf11f2
From the above exercise, it becomes apparent that Hibiscus has a breakeven oil price of about USD 41.8863/bbl, and has a lot of operating leverage given the exponential rate of increase in its Net Profit with each consequent increase in oil prices.
Considering that the oil production rate (EBITDA) is likely to increase faster than ITDA’s proportion to revenues (fixed costs), at an implied PE of 4.33x, it seems likely that an investment in Hibiscus will be profitable over the next 10 years (with the assumption that oil prices will revert to the mean in the long-term).

Valuation (Method 2)

Of course, there are a lot of assumptions behind the above method of valuation. Hence, it would be prudent to perform multiple methods of valuation and compare the figures to one another.
As opposed to the profit/loss assessment in Valuation (Method 1), another way of performing a valuation would be to estimate its balance sheet value, i.e. total revenues from 2P Reserves, and assign a reasonable margin to it.
https://preview.redd.it/o2eiss6u8br41.png?width=710&format=png&auto=webp&s=03960cce698d9cedb076f3d5f571b3c59d908fa8
From the above, we understand that Hibiscus’s 2P reserves from the North Sabah and Anasuria fields alone are approximately 44.2 mmbbl (we ignore contribution from Australia’s VIC cluster as it hasn’t been developed yet).
Doing a similar sensitivity analysis of different oil prices as above, we arrive at the following estimated total revenues and accumulated net profit:
https://preview.redd.it/h8hubrmw8br41.png?width=450&format=png&auto=webp&s=6d23f0f9c3dafda89e758b815072ba335467f33e
Let’s assume that the above average of RM 9.68 billion in total realizable revenues from current 2P reserves holds true. If we assign a conservative Net Profit margin of 15% (FY20: 23%; past 5 years average: 16%), we arrive at estimated accumulated Net Profit from 2P Reserves of RM 1.452 billion. Given the current market capitalization of RM 714 million, we might be able to say that the equity is worth about twice the current share price.
However, it is understandable that some readers might feel that the figures used in the above estimate (e.g. net profit margin of 15%) were randomly plucked from the sky. So how do we reconcile them with figures from the financial statements? Fortunately, there appears to be a way to do just that.
Intangible Assets
I refer you to a figure in the financial statements which provides a shortcut to the valuation of 2P Reserves. This is the carrying value of Intangible Assets on the Balance Sheet.
As of 2QFY21, that amount was RM 1,468,860,000 (i.e. RM 1.468 billion).
https://preview.redd.it/hse8ttb09br41.png?width=881&format=png&auto=webp&s=82e48b5961c905fe9273cb6346368de60202ebec
Quite coincidentally, one might observe that this figure is dangerously close to the estimated accumulated Net Profit from 2P Reserves of RM 1.452 billion we calculated earlier. But why would this amount matter at all?
To answer that, I refer you to the notes of the Annual Report FY20 (AR20). On page 148 of the AR20, we find the following two paragraphs:
E&E assets comprise of rights and concession and conventional studies. Following the acquisition of a concession right to explore a licensed area, the costs incurred such as geological and geophysical surveys, drilling, commercial appraisal costs and other directly attributable costs of exploration and appraisal including technical and administrative costs, are capitalised as conventional studies, presented as intangible assets.
E&E assets are assessed for impairment when facts and circumstances suggest that the carrying amount of an E&E asset may exceed its recoverable amount. The Group will allocate E&E assets to cash generating unit (“CGU”s or groups of CGUs for the purpose of assessing such assets for impairment. Each CGU or group of units to which an E&E asset is allocated will not be larger than an operating segment as disclosed in Note 39 to the financial statements.)
Hence, we can determine that firstly, the intangible asset value represents capitalized costs of acquisition of the oil fields, including technical exploration costs and costs of acquiring the relevant licenses. Secondly, an impairment review will be carried out when “the carrying amount of an E&E asset may exceed its recoverable amount”, with E&E assets being allocated to “cash generating units” (CGU) for the purposes of assessment.
On page 169 of the AR20, we find the following:
Carrying amounts of the Group’s intangible assets, oil and gas assets and FPSO are reviewed for possible impairment annually including any indicators of impairment. For the purpose of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest level CGUs for which there is a separately identifiable cash flow available. These CGUs are based on operating areas, represented by the 2011 North Sabah EOR PSC (“North Sabah”, the Anasuria Cluster, the Marigold and Sunflower fields, the VIC/P57 exploration permit (“VIC/P57”) and the VIC/L31 production license (“VIC/L31”).)
So apparently, the CGUs that have been assigned refer to the respective oil producing fields, two of which include the North Sabah field and the Anasuria field. In order to perform the impairment review, estimates of future cash flow will be made by management to assess the “recoverable amount” (as described above), subject to assumptions and an appropriate discount rate.
Hence, what we can gather up to now is that management will estimate future recoverable cash flows from a CGU (i.e. the North Sabah and Anasuria oil fields), compare that to their carrying value, and perform an impairment if their future recoverable cash flows are less than their carrying value. In other words, if estimated accumulated profits from the North Sabah and Anasuria oil fields are less than their carrying value, an impairment is required.
So where do we find the carrying values for the North Sabah and Anasuria oil fields? Further down on page 184 in the AR20, we see the following:
Included in rights and concession are the carrying amounts of producing field licenses in the Anasuria Cluster amounting to RM668,211,518 (2018: RM687,664,530, producing field licenses in North Sabah amounting to RM471,031,008 (2018: RM414,333,116))
Hence, we can determine that the carrying values for the North Sabah and Anasuria oil fields are RM 471m and RM 668m respectively. But where do we find the future recoverable cash flows of the fields as estimated by management, and what are the assumptions used in that calculation?
Fortunately, we find just that on page 185:
17 INTANGIBLE ASSETS (CONTINUED)
(a Anasuria Cluster)
The Directors have concluded that there is no impairment indicator for Anasuria Cluster during the current financial year. In the previous financial year, due to uncertainties in crude oil prices, the Group has assessed the recoverable amount of the intangible assets, oil and gas assets and FPSO relating to the Anasuria Cluster. The recoverable amount is determined using the FVLCTS model based on discounted cash flows (“DCF” derived from the expected cash in/outflow pattern over the production lives.)
The key assumptions used to determine the recoverable amount for the Anasuria Cluster were as follows:
(i Discount rate of 10%;)
(ii Future cost inflation factor of 2% per annum;)
(iii Oil price forecast based on the oil price forward curve from independent parties; and,)
(iv Oil production profile based on the assessment by independent oil and gas reserve experts.)
Based on the assessments performed, the Directors concluded that the recoverable amount calculated based on the valuation model is higher than the carrying amount.
(b North Sabah)
The acquisition of the North Sabah assets was completed in the previous financial year. Details of the acquisition are as disclosed in Note 15 to the financial statements.
The Directors have concluded that there is no impairment indicator for North Sabah during the current financial year.
Here, we can see that the recoverable amount of the Anasuria field was estimated based on a DCF of expected future cash flows over the production life of the asset. The key assumptions used by management all seem appropriate, including a discount rate of 10% and oil price and oil production estimates based on independent assessment. From there, management concludes that the recoverable amount of the Anasuria field is higher than its carrying amount (i.e. no impairment required). Likewise, for the North Sabah field.
How do we interpret this? Basically, what management is saying is that given a 10% discount rate and independent oil price and oil production estimates, the accumulated profits (i.e. recoverable amount) from both the North Sabah and the Anasuria fields exceed their carrying amounts of RM 471m and RM 668m respectively.
In other words, according to management’s own estimates, the carrying value of the Intangible Assets of RM 1.468 billion approximates the accumulated Net Profit recoverable from 2P reserves.
To conclude Valuation (Method 2), we arrive at the following:

Our estimates Management estimates
Accumulated Net Profit from 2P Reserves RM 1.452 billion RM 1.468 billion

Financials

By now, we have established the basic economics of Hibiscus’s business, including its revenues (i.e. oil production and oil price scenarios), costs (OPEX, ITDA), profitability (breakeven, future earnings potential) and balance sheet value (2P reserves, valuation). Moving on, we want to gain a deeper understanding of the 3 statements to anticipate any blind spots and risks. We’ll refer to the financial statements of both the FY20 annual report and the 2Q21 quarterly report in this analysis.
For the sake of brevity, I’ll only point out those line items which need extra attention, and skip over the rest. Feel free to go through the financial statements on your own to gain a better familiarity of the business.
https://preview.redd.it/h689bss79br41.png?width=810&format=png&auto=webp&s=ed47fce6a5c3815dd3d4f819e31f1ce39ccf4a0b
Income Statement
First, we’ll start with the Income Statement on page 135 of the AR20. Revenues are straightforward, as we’ve discussed above. Cost of Sales and Administrative Expenses fall under the jurisdiction of OPEX, which we’ve also seen earlier. Other Expenses are mostly made up of Depreciation & Amortization of RM 115m.
Finance Costs are where things start to get tricky. Why does a company which carries no debt have such huge amounts of finance costs? The reason can be found in Note 8, where it is revealed that the bulk of finance costs relate to the unwinding of discount of provision for decommissioning costs of RM 25m (Note 32).
https://preview.redd.it/4omjptbe9br41.png?width=1019&format=png&auto=webp&s=eaabfc824134063100afa62edfd36a34a680fb60
This actually refers to the expected future costs of restoring the Anasuria and North Sabah fields to their original condition once the oil reserves have been depleted. Accounting standards require the company to provide for these decommissioning costs as they are estimable and probable. The way the decommissioning costs are accounted for is the same as an amortized loan, where the initial carrying value is recognized as a liability and the discount rate applied is reversed each year as an expense on the Income Statement. However, these expenses are largely non-cash in nature and do not necessitate a cash outflow every year (FY20: RM 69m).
Unwinding of discount on non-current other payables of RM 12m relate to contractual payments to the North Sabah sellers. We will discuss it later.
Taxation is another tricky subject, and is even more significant than Finance Costs at RM 161m. In gist, Hibiscus is subject to the 38% PITA (Petroleum Income Tax Act) under Malaysian jurisdiction, and the 30% Petroleum tax + 10% Supplementary tax under UK jurisdiction. Of the RM 161m, RM 41m of it relates to deferred tax which originates from the difference between tax treatment and accounting treatment on capitalized assets (accelerated depreciation vs straight-line depreciation). Nonetheless, what you should take away from this is that the tax expense is a tangible expense and material to breakeven analysis.
Fortunately, tax is a variable expense, and should not materially impact the cash flow of Hibiscus in today’s low oil price environment.
Note: Cash outflows for Tax Paid in FY20 was RM 97m, substantially below the RM 161m tax expense.
https://preview.redd.it/1xrnwzm89br41.png?width=732&format=png&auto=webp&s=c078bc3e18d9c79d9a6fbe1187803612753f69d8
Balance Sheet
The balance sheet of Hibiscus is unexciting; I’ll just bring your attention to those line items which need additional scrutiny. I’ll use the figures in the latest 2Q21 quarterly report (2Q21) and refer to the notes in AR20 for clarity.
We’ve already discussed Intangible Assets in the section above, so I won’t dwell on it again.
Moving on, the company has Equipment of RM 582m, largely relating to O&G assets (e.g. the Anasuria FPSO vessel and CAPEX incurred on production enhancement projects). Restricted cash and bank balances represent contractual obligations for decommissioning costs of the Anasuria Cluster, and are inaccessible for use in operations.
Inventories are relatively low, despite Hibiscus being an E&P company, so forex fluctuations on carrying value of inventories are relatively immaterial. Trade receivables largely relate to entitlements from Petronas and BP (both oil supermajors), and are hence quite safe from impairment. Other receivables, deposits and prepayments are significant as they relate to security deposits placed with sellers of the oil fields acquired; these should be ignored for cash flow purposes.
Note: Total cash and bank balances do not include approximately RM 105 m proceeds from the North Sabah December 2019 offtake (which was received in January 2020)
Cash and bank balances of RM 90m do not include RM 105m of proceeds from offtake received in 3Q21 (Jan 2020). Hence, the actual cash and bank balances as of 2Q21 approximate RM 200m.
Liabilities are a little more interesting. First, I’ll draw your attention to the significant Deferred tax liabilities of RM 457m. These largely relate to the amortization of CAPEX (i.e. Equipment and capitalized E&E expenses), which is given an accelerated depreciation treatment for tax purposes.
The way this works is that the government gives Hibiscus a favorable tax treatment on capital expenditures incurred via an accelerated depreciation schedule, so that the taxable income is less than usual. However, this leads to the taxable depreciation being utilized quicker than accounting depreciation, hence the tax payable merely deferred to a later period – when the tax depreciation runs out but accounting depreciation remains. Given the capital intensive nature of the business, it is understandable why Deferred tax liabilities are so large.
We’ve discussed Provision for decommissioning costs under the Finance Costs section earlier. They are also quite significant at RM 266m.
Notably, the Other Payables and Accruals are a hefty RM 431m. What do they relate to? Basically, they are contractual obligations to the sellers of the oil fields which are only payable upon oil prices reaching certain thresholds. Hence, while they are current in nature, they will only become payable when oil prices recover to previous highs, and are hence not an immediate cash outflow concern given today’s low oil prices.
Cash Flow Statement
There is nothing in the cash flow statement which warrants concern.
Notably, the company generated OCF of approximately RM 500m in FY20 and RM 116m in 2Q21. It further incurred RM 330m and RM 234m of CAPEX in FY20 and 2Q21 respectively, largely owing to production enhancement projects to increase the production rate of the Anasuria and North Sabah fields, which according to management estimates are accretive to ROI.
Tax paid was RM 97m in FY20 and RM 61m in 2Q21 (tax expense: RM 161m and RM 62m respectively).

Risks

There are a few obvious and not-so-obvious risks that one should be aware of before investing in Hibiscus. We shall not consider operational risks (e.g. uptime, OPEX) as they are outside the jurisdiction of the equity analyst. Instead, we shall focus on the financial and strategic risks largely outside the control of management. The main ones are:
· Oil prices remaining subdued for long periods of time
· Fluctuation of exchange rates
· Customer concentration risk
· 2P Reserves being less than estimated
· Significant current and non-current liabilities
· Potential issuance of equity
Oil prices remaining subdued
Of topmost concern in the minds of most analysts is whether Hibiscus has the wherewithal to sustain itself through this period of low oil prices (sub-$30). A quick and dirty estimate of annual cash outflow (i.e. burn rate) assuming a $20 oil world and historical production rates is between RM 50m-70m per year, which considering the RM 200m cash balance implies about 3-4 years of sustainability before the company runs out of cash and has to rely on external assistance for financing.
Table 1: Hibiscus EBITDA at different oil price and exchange rates
https://preview.redd.it/gxnekd6h9br41.png?width=670&format=png&auto=webp&s=edbfb9621a43480d11e3b49de79f61a6337b3d51
The above table shows different EBITDA scenarios (RM ‘m) given different oil prices (left column) and USD:MYR exchange rates (top row). Currently, oil prices are $27 and USD:MYR is 1:4.36.
Given conservative assumptions of average OPEX/bbl of $20 (current: $15), we can safely say that the company will be loss-making as long as oil remains at $20 or below (red). However, we can see that once oil prices hit $25, the company can tank the lower-end estimate of the annual burn rate of RM 50m (orange), while at RM $27 it can sufficiently muddle through the higher-end estimate of the annual burn rate of RM 70m (green).
Hence, we can assume that as long as the average oil price over the next 3-4 years remains above $25, Hibiscus should come out of this fine without the need for any external financing.
Customer Concentration Risk
With regards to customer concentration risk, there is not much the analyst or investor can do except to accept the risk. Fortunately, 80% of revenues can be attributed to two oil supermajors (Petronas and BP), hence the risk of default on contractual obligations and trade receivables seems to be quite diminished.
2P Reserves being less than estimated
2P Reserves being less than estimated is another risk that one should keep in mind. Fortunately, the current market cap is merely RM 714m – at half of estimated recoverable amounts of RM 1.468 billion – so there’s a decent margin of safety. In addition, there are other mitigating factors which shall be discussed in the next section (‘Opportunities’).
Significant non-current and current liabilities
The significant non-current and current liabilities have been addressed in the previous section. It has been determined that they pose no threat to immediate cash flow due to them being long-term in nature (e.g. decommissioning costs, deferred tax, etc). Hence, for the purpose of assessing going concern, their amounts should not be a cause for concern.
Potential issuance of equity
Finally, we come to the possibility of external financing being required in this low oil price environment. While the company should last 3-4 years on existing cash reserves, there is always the risk of other black swan events materializing (e.g. coronavirus) or simply oil prices remaining muted for longer than 4 years.
Furthermore, management has hinted that they wish to acquire new oil assets at presently depressed prices to increase daily production rate to a targeted 20,000 bbl by end-2021. They have room to acquire debt, but they may also wish to issue equity for this purpose. Hence, the possibility of dilution to existing shareholders cannot be entirely ruled out.
However, given management’s historical track record of prioritizing ROI and optimal capital allocation, and in consideration of the fact that the MD owns 10% of outstanding shares, there is some assurance that any potential acquisitions will be accretive to EPS and therefore valuations.

Opportunities

As with the existence of risk, the presence of material opportunities also looms over the company. Some of them are discussed below:
· Increased Daily Oil Production Rate
· Inclusion of 2C Resources
· Future oil prices exceeding $50 and effects from coronavirus dissipating
Increased Daily Oil Production Rate
The first and most obvious opportunity is the potential for increased production rate. We’ve seen in the last quarter (2Q21) that the North Sabah field increased its daily production rate by approximately 20% as a result of production enhancement projects (infill drilling), lowering OPEX/bbl as a result. To vastly oversimplify, infill drilling is the process of maximizing well density by drilling in the spaces between existing wells to improve oil production.
The same improvements are being undertaken at the Anasuria field via infill drilling, subsea debottlenecking, water injection and sidetracking of existing wells. Without boring you with industry jargon, this basically means future production rate is likely to improve going forward.
By how much can the oil production rate be improved by? Management estimates in their analyst presentation that enhancements in the Anasuria field will be able to yield 5,000 bbl/day by 2021 (current: 2,500 bbl/day).
Similarly, improvements in the North Sabah field is expected to yield 7,000 bbl/day by 2021 (current: 5,300 bbl/day).
This implies a total 2021 expected daily production rate from the two fields alone of 12,000 bbl/day (current: 8,000 bbl/day). That’s a 50% increase in yields which we haven’t factored into our valuation yet.
Furthermore, we haven’t considered any production from existing 2C resources (e.g. Marigold/Sunflower) or any potential acquisitions which may occur in the future. By management estimates, this can potentially increase production by another 8,000 bbl/day, bringing total production to 20,000 bbl/day.
While this seems like a stretch of the imagination, it pays to keep them in mind when forecasting future revenues and valuations.
Just to play around with the numbers, I’ve come up with a sensitivity analysis of possible annual EBITDA at different oil prices and daily oil production rates:
Table 2: Hibiscus EBITDA at different oil price and daily oil production rates
https://preview.redd.it/jnpfhr5n9br41.png?width=814&format=png&auto=webp&s=bbe4b512bc17f576d87529651140cc74cde3d159
The left column represents different oil prices while the top row represents different daily oil production rates.
The green column represents EBITDA at current daily production rate of 8,000 bbl/day; the orange column represents EBITDA at targeted daily production rate of 12,000 bbl/day; while the purple column represents EBITDA at maximum daily production rate of 20,000 bbl/day.
Even conservatively assuming increased estimated annual ITDA of RM 500m (FY20: RM 318m), and long-term average oil prices of $50 (FY20: $60), the estimated Net Profit and P/E ratio is potentially lucrative at daily oil production rates of 12,000 bbl/day and above.
2C Resources
Since we’re on the topic of improved daily oil production rate, it bears to pay in mind the relatively enormous potential from Hibiscus’s 2C Resources. North Sabah’s 2C Resources alone exceed 30 mmbbl; while those from the yet undiagnosed Marigold/Sunflower fields also reach 30 mmbbl. Altogether, 2C Resources exceed 70 mmbbl, which dwarfs the 44 mmbbl of 2P Reserves we have considered up to this point in our valuation estimates.
To refresh your memory, 2C Resources represents oil volumes which have been discovered but are not yet classified as “commercial”. This means that there is reasonable certainty of the oil being recoverable, as opposed to simply being in the very early stages of exploration. So, to be conservative, we will imagine that only 50% of 2C Resources are eligible for reclassification to 2P reserves, i.e. 35 mmbbl of oil.
https://preview.redd.it/mto11iz7abr41.png?width=375&format=png&auto=webp&s=e9028ab0816b3d3e25067447f2c70acd3ebfc41a
This additional 35 mmbbl of oil represents an 80% increase to existing 2P reserves. Assuming the daily oil production rate increases similarly by 80%, we will arrive at 14,400 bbl/day of oil production. According to Table 2 above, this would yield an EBITDA of roughly RM 630m assuming $50 oil.
Comparing that estimated EBITDA to FY20’s actual EBITDA:
FY20 FY21 (incl. 2C) Difference
Daily oil production (bbl/day) 8,626 14,400 +66%
Average oil price (USD/bbl) $68.57 $50 -27%
Average OPEX/bbl (USD) $16.64 $20 +20%
EBITDA (RM ‘m) 632 630 -
Hence, even conservatively assuming lower oil prices and higher OPEX/bbl (which should decrease in the presence of higher oil volumes) than last year, we get approximately the same EBITDA as FY20.
For the sake of completeness, let’s assume that Hibiscus issues twice the no. of existing shares over the next 10 years, effectively diluting shareholders by 50%. Even without accounting for the possibility of the acquisition of new oil fields, at the current market capitalization of RM 714m, the prospective P/E would be about 10x. Not too shabby.
Future oil prices exceeding $50 and effects from coronavirus dissipating
Hibiscus shares have recently been hit by a one-two punch from oil prices cratering from $60 to $30, as a result of both the Saudi-Russian dispute and depressed demand for oil due to coronavirus. This has massively increased supply and at the same time hugely depressed demand for oil (due to the globally coordinated lockdowns being implemented).
Given a long enough timeframe, I fully expect OPEC+ to come to an agreement and the economic effects from the coronavirus to dissipate, allowing oil prices to rebound. As we equity investors are aware, oil prices are cyclical and are bound to recover over the next 10 years.
When it does, valuations of O&G stocks (including Hibiscus’s) are likely to improve as investors overshoot expectations and begin to forecast higher oil prices into perpetuity, as they always tend to do in good times. When that time arrives, Hibiscus’s valuations are likely to become overoptimistic as all O&G stocks tend to do during oil upcycles, resulting in valuations far exceeding reasonable estimates of future earnings. If you can hold the shares up until then, it’s likely you will make much more on your investment than what we’ve been estimating.

Conclusion

Wrapping up what we’ve discussed so far, we can conclude that Hibiscus’s market capitalization of RM 714m far undershoots reasonable estimates of fair value even under conservative assumptions of recoverable oil volumes and long-term average oil prices. As a value investor, I hesitate to assign a target share price, but it’s safe to say that this stock is worth at least RM 1.00 (current: RM 0.45). Risk is relatively contained and the upside far exceeds the downside. While I have no opinion on the short-term trajectory of oil prices, I can safely recommend this stock as a long-term Buy based on fundamental research.
submitted by investorinvestor to SecurityAnalysis [link] [comments]

Noob Safe Haven Thread | Oct 14-20 2019

Post any options questions you wanted to ask, but were afraid to ask. A weekly thread in which questions will be received with equanimity. There are no stupid questions, only dumb answers.   Fire away. This is a weekly rotation with past threads linked below. This project succeeds thanks to people thoughtfully sharing their knowledge and experiences (YOU are invited to respond to questions posted here.)
Perhaps you're looking for an item in the frequent answers list below.
For a useful response about a particular option trade, disclose position details, so that responders can assist. Vague inquires receive vague responses. Tell us: TICKER -- Put or Call -- strike price (for each leg, on spreads) -- expiration date -- cost of option entry -- date of option entry -- underlying stock price at entry -- current option (spread) market value -- current underlying stock price -- your rationale for entering the position.   .
Key informational links: • Glossary • List of Recommended Books • Introduction to Options (The Options Playbook) • The complete side-bar informational links, for mobile app users.

Links to the most frequent answers

I just made (or lost) $____. Should I close the trade? Yes, close the trade, because you had no plan for an exit to limit your risk. Your trade is a prediction: a plan directs action upon an (in)validated prediction. Take the gain (or loss). End the risk of losing the gain (or increasing the loss). Plan the exit before the start of each trade, for both a gain, and maximum loss. • Exit-first trade planning, and using a risk-reduction trade checklist (Redtexture)
Why did my options lose value, when the stock price went in a favorable direction? • Options extrinsic and intrinsic value, an introduction (Redtexture)
Getting started in options • Calls and puts, long and short, an introduction (Redtexture) • Exercise & Assignment - A Guide (ScottishTrader) • Some useful educational links • Some introductory trading guidance, with educational links • Options Expiration & Assignment (Option Alpha) • Expiration time and date (Investopedia)
Common mistakes and useful advice for new options traders • Five mistakes to avoid when trading options (Options Playbook) • Top 10 Mistakes Beginner Option Traders Make (Ally Bank) • One year into options trading: lessons learned (whitethunder9) • Here's some cold hard words from a professional trader (magik_moose) • Thoughts after trading for 7 Years (invcht2) • Avoiding Stupidity is Easier than Seeking Brilliance (Farnum Street Blog) • 20 Habits of Highly Successful Traders (Viper Report) (40 minutes) • There's a bull market somewhere (Jason Leavitt) (3 minutes)
Trade planning, risk reduction and trade size, etc. • Exit-first trade planning, and using a risk-reduction trade checklist (Redtexture) • Trade Checklists and Guides (Option Alpha) • An illustration of planning on trades failing. (John Carter) (at 90 seconds) • Trade Simulator Tool (Radioactive Trading) • Risk of Ruin (Better System Trader)
Minimizing Bid-Ask Spreads (high-volume options are best) • Fishing for a price: price discovery with (wide) bid-ask spreads (Redtexture) • List of option activity by underlying (Market Chameleon) • List of option activity by underlying (Barchart) • Open Interest by ticker (optinistics)
Closing out a trade • Most options positions are closed before expiration (Options Playbook) • When to Exit Guide (Option Alpha) • Risk to reward ratios change over the life of a position: a reason for early exit (Redtexture)
Options Greeks and Option Chains • An Introduction to Options Greeks (Options Playbook) • Options Greeks (Epsilon Options) • Theta Decay: The Ultimate Guide (Chris Butler - Project Option) • Theta decay rates differ: At the money vs. away from the money • Theta: A Detailed Look at the Decay of Option Time Value (James Toll) • Gamma Risk Explained - (Gavin McMaster - Options Trading IQ) • How Often Within Expected Move? Data Science and Implied Volatility (Michael Rechenthin, PhD - TastyTrade 2017) • A selected list of option chain & option data websites
Selected Trade Positions & Management • The Wheel Strategy (ScottishTrader) • Rolling Short (Credit) Spreads (Options Playbook) • Rolling Short (Credit) Spreads (Redtexture) • Synthetic option positions: Why and how they are used (Fidelity) • Covered Calls Tutorial (Option Investor) • Covered Calls - Chris Butler - Project Option (20 minutes) • The 10 Most Common Mistakes Made by Covered Call Writers - Allen Ellman - Blue Caller Investor (8 minutes) • Take the loss (here's why) (Clay Trader) (15 minutes) • The diagonal calendar spread and "poor man's covered call" (Redtexture) • Creative Ways to Avoid The Pattern Day Trader Rule (Sean McLaughlin) • Short calls and puts, and dividend risk (Redtexture) • Options and Dividend Risk (Sage Anderson, TastyTrade) • Options contract adjustments: what you should know (Fidelity) • Options contract adjustment announcements / memoranda (Options Clearing Corporation)
Implied Volatility, IV Rank, and IV Percentile (of days) • An introduction to Implied Volatility (Khan Academy) • An introduction to Black Scholes formula (Khan Academy) • IV Rank vs. IV Percentile: Which is better? (Project Option) • IV Rank vs. IV Percentile in Trading (Tasty Trade) (video)
Miscellaneous: Economic Calendars, International Brokers, RobinHood, Pattern Day Trader, CBOE Exchange Rules, Contract Specifications, TDA Margin Handbook, EU Regulations on US ETFs, US Taxes and Options • Selected calendars of economic reports and events • An incomplete list of international brokers dealing in US options markets (Redtexture) • Free brokerages can be very costly: Why option traders should not use RobinHood • Pattern Day Trader status and $25,000 margin account balances (FINRA) • How to find out when a new expiration is opening up: email: [email protected] for the status of a particular ticker's new expirations.
• CBOE Contract Specifications and Trading Days & Hours • TDAmeritrade Margin Handbook (18 pages PDF) • Monthly expirations of Index options are settled on next day prices • PRIIPS, KIPs, EU regulations, ETFs, Options, Brokers • Key Information Documents (KIDs) for European Citizens (Options Clearing Corporation) • Taxes and Investing (Options Industry Council) (PDF) • CBOE Exchange Rules (770+ pages, PDF) • NASDAQ Options Exchange Rules
Following week's Noob thread: Oct 21-27 2019
Previous weeks' Noob threads:
Oct 7-13 2019 Sept 30 - Oct 6 2019
Sept 23-29 2019 Sept 16-22 2019 Sept 09-15 2019 Sept 02-09 2019 Aug 26 - Sept 02 2019
Complete NOOB archive, 2018, and 2019
submitted by redtexture to options [link] [comments]

Noob Safe Haven Thread | Oct 7-13 2019

Post any options questions you wanted to ask, but were afraid to ask. A weekly thread in which questions will be received with equanimity. There are no stupid questions, only dumb answers.   Fire away. This is a weekly rotation with past threads linked below. This project succeeds thanks to people thoughtfully sharing their knowledge and experiences (YOU are invited to respond to questions posted here.)
Perhaps you're looking for an item in the frequent answers list below.
For a useful response about a particular option trade, disclose position details, so that responders can assist. Vague inquires receive vague responses. Tell us: TICKER -- Put or Call -- strike price (for each leg, on spreads) -- expiration date -- cost of option entry -- date of option entry -- underlying stock price at entry -- current option (spread) market value -- current underlying stock price -- your rationale for entering the position.   .
Key informational links: • Glossary • List of Recommended Books • Introduction to Options (The Options Playbook) • The complete side-bar informational links, for mobile app users.

Links to the most frequent answers

I just made (or lost) $____. Should I close the trade? Yes, close the trade, because you had no plan for an exit to limit your risk. Your trade is a prediction: a plan directs action upon an (in)validated prediction. Take the gain (or loss). End the risk of losing the gain (or increasing the loss). Plan the exit before the start of each trade, for both a gain, and maximum loss. • Exit-first trade planning, and using a risk-reduction trade checklist (Redtexture)
Why did my options lose value, when the stock price went in a favorable direction? • Options extrinsic and intrinsic value, an introduction (Redtexture)
Getting started in options • Calls and puts, long and short, an introduction (Redtexture) • Exercise & Assignment - A Guide (ScottishTrader) • Some useful educational links • Some introductory trading guidance, with educational links • Options Expiration & Assignment (Option Alpha) • Expiration time and date (Investopedia)
Common mistakes and useful advice for new options traders • Five mistakes to avoid when trading options (Options Playbook) • Top 10 Mistakes Beginner Option Traders Make (Ally Bank) • One year into options trading: lessons learned (whitethunder9) • Here's some cold hard words from a professional trader (magik_moose) • Thoughts after trading for 7 Years (invcht2) • Avoiding Stupidity is Easier than Seeking Brilliance (Farnum Street Blog) • 20 Habits of Highly Successful Traders (Viper Report) (40 minutes) • There's a bull market somewhere (Jason Leavitt) (3 minutes)
Trade planning, risk reduction and trade size, etc. • Exit-first trade planning, and using a risk-reduction trade checklist (Redtexture) • Trade Checklists and Guides (Option Alpha) • An illustration of planning on trades failing. (John Carter) (at 90 seconds) • Trade Simulator Tool (Radioactive Trading) • Risk of Ruin (Better System Trader)
Minimizing Bid-Ask Spreads (high-volume options are best) • Fishing for a price: price discovery with (wide) bid-ask spreads (Redtexture) • List of option activity by underlying (Market Chameleon) • List of option activity by underlying (Barchart) • Open Interest by ticker (optinistics)
Closing out a trade • Most options positions are closed before expiration (Options Playbook) • When to Exit Guide (Option Alpha) • Risk to reward ratios change over the life of a position: a reason for early exit (Redtexture)
Options Greeks and Option Chains • An Introduction to Options Greeks (Options Playbook) • Options Greeks (Epsilon Options) • Theta Decay: The Ultimate Guide (Chris Butler - Project Option) • Theta decay rates differ: At the money vs. away from the money • Theta: A Detailed Look at the Decay of Option Time Value (James Toll) • Gamma Risk Explained - (Gavin McMaster - Options Trading IQ) • How Often Within Expected Move? Data Science and Implied Volatility (Michael Rechenthin, PhD - TastyTrade 2017) • A selected list of option chain & option data websites
Selected Trade Positions & Management • The Wheel Strategy (ScottishTrader) • Rolling Short (Credit) Spreads (Options Playbook) • Rolling Short (Credit) Spreads (Redtexture) • Synthetic option positions: Why and how they are used (Fidelity) • Covered Calls Tutorial (Option Investor) • Take the loss (here's why) (Clay Trader) (15 minutes) • The diagonal calendar spread and "poor man's covered call" (Redtexture) • Creative Ways to Avoid The Pattern Day Trader Rule (Sean McLaughlin) • Short calls and puts, and dividend risk (Redtexture) • Options and Dividend Risk (Sage Anderson, TastyTrade) • Options contract adjustments: what you should know (Fidelity) • Options contract adjustment announcements / memoranda (Options Clearing Corporation)
Implied Volatility, IV Rank, and IV Percentile (of days) • An introduction to Implied Volatility (Khan Academy) • An introduction to Black Scholes formula (Khan Academy) • IV Rank vs. IV Percentile: Which is better? (Project Option) • IV Rank vs. IV Percentile in Trading (Tasty Trade) (video)
Miscellaneous: Economic Calendars, International Brokers, RobinHood, Pattern Day Trader, CBOE Exchange Rules, Contract Specifications, TDA Margin Handbook, EU Regulations on US ETFs, US Taxes and Options • Selected calendars of economic reports and events • An incomplete list of international brokers dealing in US options markets (Redtexture) • Free brokerages can be very costly: Why option traders should not use RobinHood • Pattern Day Trader status and $25,000 margin account balances (FINRA) • How to find out when a new expiration is opening up: email: [email protected] for the status of a particular ticker's new expirations.
• CBOE Contract Specications and Trading Days & Hours • TDAmeritrade Margin Handbook (18 pages PDF) • Monthly expirations of Index options are settled on next day prices • PRIIPS, KIPs, EU regulations, ETFs, Options, Brokers • Key Information Documents (KIDs) for European Citizens (Options Clearing Corporation) • Taxes and Investing (Options Industry Council) (PDF) • CBOE Exchange Rules (770+ pages, PDF) • NASDAQ Options Exchange Rules
Following week's Noob thread: Oct 14-20 2019
Previous weeks' Noob threads:
Sept 30 - Oct 6 2019 Sept 23-29 2019 Sept 16-22 2019 Sept 09-15 2019 Sept 02-09 2019 Aug 26 - Sept 02 2019
Complete NOOB archive, 2018, and 2019
submitted by redtexture to options [link] [comments]

Tax Free Forex Trading Tax Treatment of Forex Income - YouTube Best Profit Given Forex Indicator🔥 Metatrader 4 Indicators ... How to be Consistently Profitable in Forex Trading - YouTube Forex hedging EA free download  Profit from Both ... forex live trading - free EA Profit V10 robot 2019 - YouTube Forex Trading the smart way!!! - Locking in Profits ...

In this case, the trader will only pay income tax when his profits exceed R151,500 per annum. Only one close corporation’s ‘tax threshold benefit’ may be used by an individual. Tax Rates Business Entities. Forex traders should be aware that different South African business entities are subject to different tax rates. Here is a brief explanation: Companies. Forex trading which is done ... Aspiring forex traders might want to consider tax implications before getting started. Forex futures and options are 1256 contracts and taxed using the 60/40 rule, with 60% of gains or losses ... Hi ATO,. I'm a Forex trader that has just gotten into a live trading account.. I'm an Australian resident for tax purposes I also have a full-time job out on the mines in the NT. I'm looking at using Forex trading to one day be my sole source of income, but I need to build my account up first.. When trading either I make a profit or a loss. This is the most common way that forex traders file forex profits. Under this tax treatment, 60% of total capital gains are taxed at 15% and the remaining 40% of total capital gains are taxed at your current income tax bracket, which could currently be as high as 35%. Profitable traders prefer to report forex trading profits under section 1256 because it offers a greater tax break than section ... Tax is an important compulsory financial charge in any business, as well in trading. So, let us see what countries are tax free for trading. Tax-free countries around the world – the best for forex traders There are certain countries that are considered “tax-free countries.” This means that residents are not deducted for income tax ... Forex traders found liable to personal taxation on their trading profits in the U.K. are taxed on the basis of their applicable income tax rates or capital gains tax. Interest payments and profits from trading when conducted as a business are likely to be subject to income tax (from 20% to 45%), while other taxable profits are generally taxed as a capital gain (at 10% or 20%). If you fall under this bracket any day trading profits are free from income tax, business tax, and capital gains tax. As you can probably imagine, falling into this category isn’t a walk in the park (more on that later). 2. Self-Employed. The second category taxes trading activity in precisely the same way a normal self-employed individual undergoing business activity is taxed. You will be ... I'm just wondering, does anyone know what countries are tax free for forex trading? I'm now living in England, where I pay no tax on my earnings. But it's cold and horrible, and I'm thinking of relocating to either Spain or Portugal. Are those countries tax free as well? Because I know in Norway where I come from, there is a horrible tax on gains from forex trading. Any overview of countries ... So, the forex day trading tax implications in Canada are to a certain extent controllable by you. You and/or your account can decide which system will work best for your situation. However, the CRA has pointed out that forex tax reporting must be consistent. So, if you file your profits as business income at the beginning, you cannot later ...

[index] [15647] [8304] [26148] [1935] [1261] [29654] [798] [19493] [7341] [17170]

Tax Free Forex Trading

Recommended Forex Copy Trade: https://youtu.be/f_OB69cg_lU Hi Forex Traders, today I am going to give you a Forex Hedging EA for FREE. Forex Hedging strategy... AGEA will pay you USD50 for every flaw that you find on AGEA.Trade platform. 🕵🏻‍♀️ 🕵🏻‍♀️ Our goal 🥅🥅🥅 is to be the best and we want you to help us in that mi... **This video is not intended to be tax advice. Seek your own tax professional about your personal tax situation. ** Grab a copy of the Home Business Success ... How to be Consistently Profitable in Forex Trading. Please like the video and comment if you enjoyed - it helps a lot! Trade forex on Ayondo http://www.fina... free download ea https://forexlab2020.blogspot.com/2019/03/forex-live-trading-free-ea-profit-v10_29.html forex live trading - free EA Profit V10 robot 2019 B... Full info about Tax Free Forex Trading: http://forex-millionaire-strategy.blogspot.com/2012/11/tax-free-forex-trading.html Forex Trading Tip Quick video here showing how once I have secured enough profits on a position, I love my stop loss over or below the entry price to lock in...

http://binaryoptiontrade.biomucasi.gq